Losses attenuation increase with frequency, and can get impractical at higher radar frequencies. Make a beam – like a long range flash light Radar usually uses the shortest practical radio waves because short radio waves can be focused into a narrow “beam” with a smaller antenna than long radio waves. This technique does not require a large amount of power, just enough to cover the radar return of the aircraft. These techniques attempt to exploit weaknesses in the design and operation of specific monopulse radars. The victim radar signal processor attempts to distinguish the target Doppler from the jamming pulses. Another disadvantage is that Doppler noise requires a sophisticated jammer able to receive the victim radar pulse, generate random positive and negative frequency modulations on this pulse, and retransmit the jamming pulses at the PRF and pulse width of the victim radar.

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When the return is received, the receiver delays different frequencies differently called de-chirp. It turns out that the mass manufacture of high performance magnetrons is much more tricky than first imagined. Reflector Bar Assembly – Formed the flat radar waves from above into a fan shaped beam, very narrow in azimuth horizontal say 1 degree.

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The echoes may be so intense that they make observation of the real targets difficult. A cross-polarized jammer must receive and measure the polarization of the victim monopulse radar.

Unlike human listening, which is gathered from all directions, the radar antenna is designed to be very sensitive to radar waves from the same narrow beam or fan, and to be as insensitive as practical forrce radar frequencies from other directions very useful in reducing accidental or intentional interference. The operator has a number of controls, the following are of special interest: First, it can be defeated by a trained radar operator.


These two out-of-phase signals must be matched in amplitude and must exceed the amplitude of the target return. The IFF sent a pulse out a few microseconds after the radar.

For the above reasons, wave guides are very popular in radar units, even though they are more expensive and bulky and much less physically flexible. This system is not useful for the tracking radars and was not an option. However, the advantages of operating against jammers at the higher frequencies are balanced in part by the disadvantages of the higher frequencies, especially above L band, for long-range air-surveillance radar.

Target parameters are fed to a fire control computer that computes a future impact point for a weapon based on these parameters and the characteristics of the weapon being employed. This retransmitted signal, called a cover pulse, is displayed in the range gate with the target signal. This enabled the defenders to know the height of the target aircraft to better evaluate the threat and better direct defensive aircraft to the target.

Deception jamming employed in a self-protection role is designed to counter lethal radar systems.

The metal rings at the end of the glass are for the filiment and cathode connections. By varying the TWT voltage, the Doppler frequency of the jamming pulse is changed linearly, and the radar tracking gates follow the jamming pulse.

Monopulse angle jamming techniques can be divided into two main categories, system-specific and universal. The system resembles the methods FAA aircraft controllers use to track commercial and other suitably equipped aircraft, EXCEPT that the military codes are secret and change often possibly daily. This compromise permits better detection of targets regardless of their altitude. The British prototype was certainly improved in the U.


Effective deception jamming requires much more intelligence support than does noise jamming. These units were in use 40 years ago. This may require exploitation of the monopulse threat system. It was his job to keep the ABAR radar equipment peaked and running. Skolnik,pages ] Impulsive noise, that can shock-excite the ” narrow-band ” radar receiver and cause it to ring, can be reduced with the Lamb noise-silencing circuit,” or Dicke fix.

The insidious nature of range deception jamming may generate enough miss distance to save the aircraft and pilot. And the receivers are tuned to be sensitive to roughly 0. To be effective, deception jamming systems must be programmed with detailed and exact signal parameters for each lethal threat.

IFC – Acquisition Radars

And there are many operational and equipment techniques used by the radar to try to counter the jamming techniques. As a rule, the jamming signal must be 25 to 30 dBs stronger than the target return to exploit the tracking errors in the cross-polarized forfe pattern. Return to beginning of Nike Radars Radar Receivers Radar receivers are very similar to your usual TV receiver, and in many ways simpler because we don’t have to play such interesting games processing the audio and color video.

This is actually rather tricky, as the transmitter sends a pulse of energy to the antenna sufficient to cook or spark most receiving components, then with in a few micro seconds, the transmitter must be electrically disconnected wlta-8560 the antenna and the whheel connected.